Differences in Institutional Quality across Euro Area Countries: Which Factors Contribute Most to Inequality?

  • Philip Arestis University of Cambridge, UK
  • Elena Bárcena-Martín University of Malaga, Spain
  • Salvador Pérez-Moreno University of Malaga, Spain

Abstract

In recent years the differences in the institutional structure across the Euro area countries have become a cause of concern, both for some individual Member States and for the functioning of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). In this paper we analyse the inequality in institutional quality across Euro area countries and estimate which factors of public and private institutions contribute most to overall inequality in institutional quality. To this end, we consider the institutional indicators of the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) from the World Economic Forum (WEF) during the period 2007-2017, with the most disaggregated data possible. Our findings support the call for structural reforms, particularly in the areas of ethics and corruption (in the public sphere but also in the business environment), undue influence on the judiciary and government decisions, and protection of property rights, as the major sources of inequality in institutional quality.


Key words: Institutional quality, Inequality, Euro area.


JEL: O43, 047, O52.


U poslednjih nekoliko godina razlike u strukturi institucija u okviru zemalja Evro zone postale su razlog za zabrinutost kako u pojedinačnim državama članicama tako i za funkcionisanje ekonomske i monetarne unije (EMU). U ovom radu analiziramo nejednakost u institucionalnom kvalitetu u zemljama Evro zone i procenjujemo koji faktori javnih i privatnih institucija najviše doprinose ukupnoj nejednakosti u pogledu kvaliteta institucija. U tom smislu, posmatramo institucionalne indikatore Indeksa globalne konkurentnosti (GCI) iz Svetskog ekonomskog foruma (WEF) u periodu 2007-2017, sa podacima koji su disagregirani što je više moguće. Naši rezultati podržavaju poziv na strukturne reforme, posebno u oblasti etike i korupcije (u javnoj sferi, ali i u poslovnom okruženju), preteran uticaj na pravosuđe i državne odluke, i zaštitu imovinskih prava, kao glavnih izvora nejednakosti u pogledu institucionalnog kvaliteta.


Ključne reči: Institucionalni kvalitet, nejednakost, Evro zona.

How to Cite
Arestis P., Bárcena-Martín E., & Pérez-Moreno S. (2018). Differences in Institutional Quality across Euro Area Countries: Which Factors Contribute Most to Inequality? Panoeconomicus, 65(3), 363-379. doi:10.2298/PAN1803363A